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The bottom chart monitors the range, or the width of the distribution. If your data were shots in target practice, the average is where the shots are clustering, and the range is how tightly they are clustered. Control charts for attribute data are used singly. Cart Total: Checkout. Learn About Quality. Advanced search. The certification names are the trademarks of their respective owners. Logo are registered trademarks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Sign in Join. Sign in. Log into your account.

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Forgot your password? Sign up. Password recovery. Recover your password. Get help. Create an account. Whizlabs Blog. Cause-and-effect diagram Control charts Histogram Flowchart Pareto chart Checksheets Scatter diagram Cause and effect diagram It is also known as fishbone diagram which are very helpful to find the root cause of the defect. Control charts Control charts measure the results of processes over time and display the results in a graphical form. Flowchart The flow chart can be used to understand a complex process in order to find the relationships and dependencies between events.

Checksheets A check sheet is basically used for gathering and organizing data. Scatter diagram Scatter diagrams use two variables; one is called an independent variable, the input, and other dependent variable, which is an output. They are also a type of histogram.

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Control charts B. Process flowcharts C. Scatter diagrams D. Pareto charts Correct Answer: D. About the Author More from Author. About Mark Oswald Mark is an experienced software engineer and technology blogger. He has over five years of experience in writing in different technological domains. Writing is his passion and he contributes regularly to the Whizlabs blog to share his knowledge. If the prosecution alleges that the dog which is the object of such proceedings is one of the four types, section 5 5 of the Act places the burden of proof on the defendant to show that the dog is not of such.

If the defence serve rebuttal evidence that the dog is not a prohibited type, then the prosecutor should instruct an expert witness who should be asked to examine the dog and prepare a report dealing with both appearance and behaviour. See Expert witnesses. That offence becomes an aggravated offence, and triable either way, if the dog injures any person or an assistance dog while out of control.

A dog shall be regarded as dangerously out of control on any occasion on which there are grounds for reasonable apprehension that it will injure any person or assistance dog, whether or not it actually does so, section 10 3 Dangerous Dogs Act This is not an exhaustive definition and the ordinary meaning of the words should still be applied.

Section 10 3 of the Act provides an exemption in any case in which the dog is being used for a lawful purpose by a constable or a person in the service of the Crown. He faced one count of being in charge of a dog which was dangerously out of control. If it was, the incident fell out of the scope of section 3 by virtue of section 10 3. Whether a dog was being used for a policing activity by a constable was a question of fact. On the assumed facts upon which the issue was argued in R v PY , the exemption in section 10 3 was not established, the dogs were kept at home and were being exercised as the defendant was required to do so.

Under section 3 1A of the Act a person is not guilty of an offence where the dog is dangerously out of control with respect to a trespasser who is in, or entering, their home, whether the owner is present or not. This exemption does not apply to dog attacks on trespassers in gardens, driveways or outbuildings. The offence under section 3 1 is an offence of strict liability.

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The prosecution is, however, required to prove that an act or omission of the defendant, with or without fault, to more than a minimal degree, caused or permitted the dog to be dangerously out of control. R v Robinson-Pierre [] 1 Cr App R 22 provides: Parliament did not intend to render the dog owner absolutely liable in all circumstances for the dog being dangerously out of control, or to create an offence without regard to the ability of the owner or someone to whom he had entrusted responsibility, to take and keep control of the animal; there must be some causal connection between having control of the dog and the prohibited state of affair that has arisen.

There would be grounds for reasonable apprehension that the dog would go on to injure another person. It was also determined that the injury caused by a dog is in itself capable of being conduct that would give grounds for reasonable apprehension of injury. In proceedings for an offence under section 3 1 of the Act against a person who is the owner of a dog but was not at the material time in charge of it, it is a defence for the accused to prove that the dog was at the material time in the charge of a person whom he reasonably believed to be a fit and proper person to be in charge of it.

The defence should only succeed where there is evidence that the owner had for the time being divested himself or responsibility in favour of an identifiable person: R v Huddart [] 2 Archbold News 1, CA. It is a summary offence for a person to use, or permit the use of, a guard dog to protect any premises unless a handler capable of controlling the dog is also present and the dog is under his control, or unless the dog is secured so that it is not at liberty to go freely about the premises. An offence is committed by the owner or person in charge of a dog if it worries livestock on any agricultural land, section 1 Dogs Protection of Livestock Act An offence is not committed if at the time of worrying, the livestock were trespassing, and the dog belonged to the owner, or was in the charge of the occupier or a person authorised by the owner, of the land on which the livestock were trespassing, and the person in charge of the dog did not cause the dog to attack the livestock.

Section 2 of the Dogs Protection of Livestock Act provides that it is necessary to have the consent of the Chief Officer of police for the police area in which the land is situated, or the occupier of the land, or the owner of any of the livestock in question. The consent is a pre-requisite to any prosecution. If any of these are attacked by a dog, there is no offence under this Act. There may, however, be recourse under the Dogs Act or under the Act. The Act does not apply to private gardens, parks etc.

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There is no power in the Act for any penalty other than a financial one section 1 6 refers. There is no power to make a control or destruction order. Prosecutors should note, however, that civil proceedings under the Act can be brought in tandem with the criminal proceedings to apply for a control order on conviction.


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Regulation 3 imposes a duty on every keeper of a dog to have their dog micro-chipped and to record information on a database. This information must be kept up-to-date in order for a dog to be considered to be properly micro-chipped at all times. Regulation 7 gives the Secretary of State power to request information from databases and, in certain circumstances, gives the Secretary of State the power to serve a notice on database operators requiring them to cease holding themselves out as meeting the requirements of the Regulations.

Regulation 8 requires a new keeper to update the information on the database on the transfer of keepership and prevents a dog from being transferred to a new keeper until it has been micro-chipped. Regulation 10 provides for reporting of adverse reactions to, and migration of, microchips and reporting of microchip failures. Regulation 12 gives authorised person powers to serve a notice on a keeper to microchip their dog, to microchip a dog and recover the cost of doing so from the keeper and to take possession of a dog for the purpose of micro-chipping it.

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A prosecution is likely to be in the public interest where a dog dangerously out of control injures a person or an assistance dog. Section 3 1 of the Act creates a strict liability offence.

preftiretelta.tk The prosecution is nonetheless required to prove that an act or omission by the defendant, with or without fault, to more than a minimal degree, caused or permitted the dog to be dangerously out of control; Parliament did not intend to render the dog owner absolutely liable in all circumstances for the dog being dangerously out of control, or to create an offence without regard to the ability of the owner, or someone to whom he had entrusted responsibility, to take and keep control of the animal; there must be some causal connection between having control of the dog and the prohibited state of affairs that has arisen see R v Robinson-Pierre [] 1 Cr App R 22, DA.

Cases involving death will inevitably be one of the most serious matters to be dealt with by prosecutors. The serious nature of these cases usually means that a prosecution will be in the public interest.